Do you know, what is immunity ?
Immunity is the ability of the body to resist invasion by microorganisms and influence of toxins that cause tissue damage.
Types of immunity
1. Innate immunity :
a . Non – specific
b . Specific
2. Acquired immunity :
a . Active.
b . Passive.
Antigen : This is a substance, which when introduced into the body, stim ulate the production of antibody with which it specifically reacts. Haptens.These are substances, which cannot induce antibody formation, but can react specifically with antibodies.
The smallest unit of antigenicity is known as antigenic determinant or epitope.
They are peptides or monosaccharide residues. They have a specific chemical structure, electrical charge and are capable of stimulating an antibody, which reacts at that site.
The specific reactivity induced by an antigenic stimulus in a host is known as immune response. The immune response is of two types:
1. Antibody – mediated immune (AMI) (humoral) response.
2. Cell – mediated immune (CMI) response.
Antibody – mediated immune (hormonal) response
Antibody – mediated immunity response provides defence against bacterial pathogens and viruses that invade through respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. It also prevents recurrence of viral infections.
It participates in the pathogenesis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
The production of antibodies occurs in three steps:
1. Entry of antigen, its distribution in the tissue and contact with ap propriate immunocompetent cells.
2. Processing of antigen by cells.
3. Secretion of antibody.
Cell – mediated immune response
Cell – mediated immune response is a type of specific immune response that does not involve antibody. It is mediated by T lymphocytes. CMI provides protection against fungi, viruses and intracellular bacterial pathogen. It participates in graft – versus – host reaction. It provides immunity against cancer. CMI is provided by T lymphocytes and their products lymphokines .
1. Monokines secreted by monocytes and macrophages help in CMI.
2. Lymphokines and monokines together constitute cytokines.
3. Cytokines are soluble products secreted by lymphocytes, mac rophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells.
8 Natural Ways to Boost Your Immune System
Elderberry extract is one of the best general immune system boosters out there. Give your child an elderberry syrup 2-3 times a year, especially before the start of a flu season.
Make sure your child eats 2-3 servings of vitamin C rich veggies and fruits – berries, citrus, kiwi, bell peppers, dark green vegetables – every day.
Zinc is an important immunity boosting mineral. Protein rich food red meat, shellfish, legumes, eggs, nuts & seeds – contain zinc.
Keep your child well hydrated at all times. Juices, teas, soups do not make up for the recommended minimum of 6 glasses of water per day.
When we keep a healthy gut, germs have less of a chance to grab a hold. Probiotics are good bacteria that help in maintaining good intestinal health.
Getting enough Vitamin-D is vital for children. Not only does it strengthen immune system but also contributes to proper bone growth .
7. Bone Broth
Bone broth is an excellent source of amino acids that help fight inflammation. It’s a great preventative measure at the start of a flu season.
8. Garlic, Ginger & Spices
Never underestimate the power of garlic, ginger and anti – inflammatory spices. These superfoods help to fight any type of virus attacks and infection